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Classification and different properties of End Mills


End mills are cutting tools used in milling operations to remove material from workpieces. They come in various shapes, sizes, and materials, each designed for specific milling tasks. Here are the main classifications and different properties of end mills:

  1. Classification based on Shape:

    • Square End Mills: Have a square cutting end and are used for general milling applications.
    • Ball End Mills: Have a rounded end and are used for contouring and 3D machining, creating smooth curves and surfaces.
    • Corner Radius End Mills: Have a rounded corner that improves tool strength and reduces chipping, ideal for roughing and finishing operations.
    • Bull Nose End Mills: Similar to corner radius end mills but with a larger radius, providing better strength and stability during milling.
  2. Classification based on Number of Flutes:

    • Single Flute End Mills: Have one cutting flute and are suitable for materials that produce long chips, such as aluminum.
    • Double Flute End Mills: Have two cutting flutes and are the most common type, offering a balance between material removal rate and tool strength.
    • Four Flute End Mills: Provide better chip evacuation and surface finish compared to double flute end mills, suitable for a wide range of materials.
    • Multi-Flute End Mills: Have more than four flutes and are used for high-speed machining and finishing operations.
  3. Classification based on Material:

    • High-Speed Steel (HSS) End Mills: Affordable and suitable for general-purpose milling in various materials, but they have lower cutting speeds compared to carbide end mills.
    • Carbide End Mills: Made of carbide material, they are more expensive but offer higher cutting speeds, longer tool life, and better performance in tough materials.
    • Cobalt End Mills: Combining HSS and cobalt, these end mills provide improved heat resistance and are ideal for hard materials.
  4. Coating Properties:

    • TiN (Titanium Nitride) Coating: Provides high wear resistance and is suitable for general-purpose milling in a wide range of materials.
    • TiCN (Titanium Carbo-Nitride) Coating: Offers better wear resistance and increased hardness compared to TiN coatings, suitable for high-speed machining.
    • TiAlN (Titanium Aluminum Nitride) Coating: Ideal for high-speed machining and difficult-to-machine materials, providing excellent wear and heat resistance.
  5. Helix Angle:

    • Low Helix Angle: Suitable for tough materials and applications requiring more torque.
    • High Helix Angle: Ideal for soft materials and applications that require faster material removal and better chip evacuation.
  6. Shank Type:

    • Straight Shank: Common shank type used in standard milling machines and collet holders.
    • Weldon Shank: Have a flat surface on the shank, allowing for better grip and stability in tool holders.

Choosing the right end mill for a specific milling operation depends on factors like material being cut, depth of cut, required surface finish, and machine capabilities. It's essential to consider these properties to optimize tool performance and achieve desired machining results.

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